Pregnancy Tips & Guides

Pregnancy is said to occur due to the fertilization of the egg by a sperm which grows in size a woman’s uterus which is called the womb. It takes 270 days for the womb to develop into a baby but the gynecologist will consider the date from the last menstrual period or 300 days (40 weeks).

Abnormalities of pregnancyAbnormalities of pregnancy :
* Excessive vomiting – The usual morning sickness will not get worse and this may result in a situation called hyperemesis gravidarum.
* Bleeding in early pregnancy – This is not a normal phenomenon and a lot of care and caution must be ensured as it may prove to be fatal for the life of the woman. Its causes are abnormalities of the cervix, abortion, ectopic gestation, vesicular mole.
* Albuminuria – The presence of albumin in urine is a known complication of pregnancy. The cause may be cystitis or infection in urinary tract. Cystitis is said to be an infection in the bladder. A lot of pain is felt in the lower abdomen which causes frequent urination as well as burning. Another infection also has its striking postures which involve in the infection of the kidney and ureter. A lot of pain is felt in the loins with nausea, vomiting as well as fever. This sort of syndrome is known as pylo-nephrites.
* Pre-eclampsia – This occurs usually after 30 weeks of pregnancy. Early signs are raised blood pressure, increase of albumin in the urine, visual disturbances, severe frontal headache, and abdominal pain, vomiting and oedema of feet and ankles. This disease is dangerous for the fetus and for the mother.
* Eclamsia – This means that the woman has fits similar to those of epilepsy, and coma. The condition may develop suddenly in a severe case of pre-eclampsia. The fits may occur during pregnancy, during labor, or soon after delivery. Eclampsia is a dangerous for both the mother and the baby. This condition should be prevented by means of good pre-natal care.
* Ante-partum hemorrhage – This means bleeding during pregnancy after the 28th week. If it is slight, the cause could be some lesion of the cervix.
* High risk cases of pregnancy – all cases of abnormality or high risk should be identified as early as possible.
* Back ache – Slight backache may be due to poor posture and is more common in multiparous women whose abdominal muscles are weak. It can be prevented or lessened by attention to posture and by exercises.
* Fainting – Sudden changes of posture, or standing for a long time, may cause the pregnant woman to faint. If she feels faint when lying on her back, this is due to pressure on the large veins, and she should be turned on her side immediately. Check for anemia, which may be the cause of fainting.

Pregnancy GuidePregnancy Weeks :
* 1 to 4 weeks – menstruation stops, pricking in the breasts, whitish vaginal discharge.
* 5 to 8 weeks – frequent urination, breasts grow larger, nipple become darker, and surface veins can be seen, nausea and perhaps vomiting especially in the morning, cervix is soft.
* 9 to 12 weeks – breast become darker round the nipple, vagina becomes a bluish color. By 12th week, weight gain is about 1.12 kilograms.
* 13 to 16 weeks – tiny lumps appear on the areola of the breasts, the uterus rises out of the pelvis, by 16 weeks you can feel the fundus about half way between the symphisis pubis and umbilicus, the mother may feel the fetus moving.
* 17 to 20 weeks – a second dark ring appears round the breasts, a little fluid comes from the nipples, the fundus is nearly up to the umbilicus, fetal movement can be felt and fetal heart sound heard, weight gain is about 250 grams per week.
* 21 to 24 weeks – dark patches may appear on the face, the fundus is at or above the umbilicus.
* 25 to 28 weeks – the blood pressure is slightly below normal, there may be shortness of breath, and quicker respirations, the fundus is 4 to 5 fingers above the umbilicus, weight gain about 450 grams per week.
* 29 to 32 weeks – there may be slight swelling of the angles; the fundus is half way between the umbilicus and xiphisternum (bottom of the breast bone).
* 33 to 36 weeks – again there is frequent urination; the fundus is at or almost at the xiphisternum.
* 37 to 40 weeks – the uterus drops into the pelvis at about 38 weeks, and the fundus is then at a lower level. Breathing becomes easier, but sitting and walking may be difficult. Vaginal discharge increases. The total weight gain by the 40th week is from 9 to 11 kilogram.

Nutrition in pregnancyNutrition in pregnancy:

The pregnant woman’s diet should provide for the needs of the growing fetus, maintenance of the mother’s health, physical strength required during labor, successful lactation. Protein foods are essential for growth of the fetus. If possible the pregnant woman should have plenty of milk, eggs, and meat. If she is vegetarian she will need to have different cereals, a lot of pulses and nuts. Iron is important for making the baby’s food and to avoid or lessen anemia. She should have jaggery instead of sugar, sesame seeds, and plenty of dark green leafy vegetables. Calcium is necessary for making the baby’s bones and teeth. The best source of calcium is milk. Vitamins are very important for pregnant women. She should have plenty of vegetables and fruits, and modified diets like low salt diet, high protein diet is necessary during pregnancy.

Labor administration – stages:

First stage of labor is from the start of regular contractions until the cervix is fully dilated. During the first stage care should be taken such as when she has been examined and prepared, the mother may walk around or rest as she wishes. Encourage her to empty her bladder frequently, and to take nourishing drinks.

labor stagesSecond stage is from the time the cervix is fully dilated until the birth of the baby. Signs that the second stage has begun are rupture of membranes, bearing down pains, dilated anus and vagina.

The third stage is after delivery of the baby until the placenta and membranes have come out. While waiting for the placenta to come, give immediate care to the baby.

After attending to the mother at the end of the third stage, give the baby bath, examine, weigh and dress the baby.

Post-Natal Care:

The post-natal period or puerperium begins at the completion of the third stage of labor and lasts for six weeks. During this period this reproductive organs gradually return to normal, and lactation is established.

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  1. Jenni Pratt says:

    This article needs some serious editing. The first paragraph says it all.

    “Pregnancy is said to occur due to the fertilization of the egg by a sperm which grows in size a woman’s uterus which is called the womb.”

    This gives the impression that the SPERM grows after fertilizing the egg, as opposed to the actual fertilized egg. Furthermore, the second half of that sentence makes absolutely no sense. Did the author mean to say it grows in size within a woman’s uterus? Or perhaps he/she just meant to say it grows inside the uterus? This next sentence is the one that really made me laugh.

    “It takes 270 days for the womb to develop into a baby but the gynecologist will consider the date from the last menstrual period or 300 days (40 weeks).”

    WHAT?! The womb is not the baby!!!! Nor does it develop into one! Even my 12 year old sister knows this! Please consider editing (or at least proofreading) your next article before posting it. Mistakes like those shown above tend to confuse or mislead those who are only seeking truth at such a tenuous time in their lives. Please use discretion while posting articles on their behalf.


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