Early pregnancy bleeding is surprisingly common, and it is always worrying. Therefore, care must be taken, as it may be dangerous to the life of the woman. There are many causes which are included in the following:
- Abnormalities of the cervix, such as erosion (ulceration), polyp (growth) and cancer of the cervix. In these conditions, there is a slight irregular bleeding with no pain. The woman should be referred to a doctor.
- Abortion – in this, the woman has abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding which may be mild or severe. If this occurs in the first two months of pregnancy and the symptoms are mild, advice the woman to stay in bed until three days after all bleeding has stopped. If bleeding stops, this was probably a threatened abortion and the fetus may go on to term. Advice the woman not to go on journeys nor to do any heavy work, and to avoid sexual intercourse until about the 24th week of pregnancy. If bleeding and abdominal pain get worse, the fetus cannot be saved. This is an inevitable abortion; if possible the woman should be taken to the health centre or hospital. If this is not possible give Ergot two tablets, watch the condition and what is passed from the vagina. If a woman having an abortion develops fever, this is likely to be a septic abortion and is dangerous. She should be taken to the health centre or hospital without delay. Antibiotics or triple sulphia should be started.
- Ectopic gestation – This is a pregnancy outside the uterus, usually in one of the tubes. Signs and symptoms usually start 6 to 10 weeks after the last menstrual period. They include nausea and vomiting, fainting, pain on one side of the lower abdomen, and a slight brownish vaginal bleeding. The woman’s life is in danger.
- Vesicular mole – This is an abnormal pregnancy, in which after absence of menstruation for 3 to 4 months, small cysts with watery blood stained discharge are passed through the vagina. The fundal height is big compared with her dates.
- Light spotting is not considered as a major problem. If there is fresh bleeding, particularly if it is followed by cramping or abdominal pain, immediately care should be taken.
To conclude, if these above conditions suspected in the early pregnancy the woman should go to hospital and consult a doctor or gynecologist immediately without delay. You should also ensure that proper hygienic conditions should be prevalent in the hospital environment for these conditions for prevention of bleeding under such circumstances of early pregnancy bleeding.